Anal cancer is a cancer which arises from the anus , the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract. Prevention includes avoiding risk factors and HPV vaccination. Symptoms of anal cancer can include pain or pressure in the anus or rectum, a change in bowel habits, a lump near the anus, rectal bleeding, itching or discharge. Bleeding may be severe.
Anatomy of the Anal Region - Colon Explorer
Lichen Sclerosus of Anus
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The anal region is made up of a sophisticated muscular complex, committed to fecal continence, and of the anal canal, featuring many different cellular tissues, which a variety of neoplasms can arise from. The anal region is anatomically complex and this causes a great deal of confusion between gastroenterologists and clinicians alike. Also endoscopists both gastroenterologists and surgeons have inadequate knowledge of the anatomic details of this area, which is daily explored for diagnostic assessment. In this chapter we provide a brief introduction on the anatomy of the anal region, coupled with endoscopic pictures of the different anatomic portions of this structure. From a practical standpoint, we distinguish the anal verge, whose inspection is directly made by the endoscopist, from the anal canal, which can be accurately evaluated with the modern video-endoscopes, provided that a correct technique is employed.